Historic Wetlands Resources

“Mapping the historic ecology and reconstructing the historical fauna of the lower Bronx River: a guide for ecosystem restoration and outreach.” Sanderson, W. and LaBruna, D. 2005. The Wildlife Conservation Society.

* Historical hydrology of the lower Bronx River watershed. NRG 2007. A map developed from the 1897 USGS map of the Bronx by georeferenced using ArcMap9.1 and tracing streams and wetlands for area north of Gun Hill Road , the limit of Sanderson and LaBruna’s work.

* Current streams and wetlands of the Bronx County portion of the Bronx River watershed. NRG 2007. A map and geodatabase constructed on ArcMap 9.1 using NWI wetlands, aerial photography, field visits and restoration records. These are general locations of wetlands mapped from available GIS data, not wetland delineations

* The Bronx River watershed. NRG 2007. A map generated from the ACOE’s watersheds and sub-watersheds delineation using Geo-HMS program with 30-meter DEM.

Other Useful References

Behar, Sharon and Cheo, Martha. Hudson Basin River Watch Guidance Document. East Greenwich, NY: Hudson Basin River Watch; 2000. Available at <>.

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder, and J.B. Stribling. 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water; Washington, D.C.

Beechie, T.J. and T.H. Sibley. 1997. Relationships between channel characteristics, woody Debris, and fish habitat in northwestern Washington ttreams, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 126:217-229.

Bisson, P., R. Bilby, M. Bryant, C. Dolloff, G. Grette, R. House, M. Murphy, K. Koski, and J. Sedell. 1987. Large woody debris in forested streams in the Pacific Northwest: Past, Present, and Future. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fisheries Interactions. Ed by E.O. Salo and T.W. Cundy. Pp. 143-190. Institute of Forest Resources Contribution 57. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Bode, Robert W., Margaret A. Novak, Lawrence E. Abele, Douglas Carlson. (1999) Biological Stream Assessment, Bronx River, Bronx and Westchester Counties, New York, NYS DEC – Division of Water, Bureau of Water Assessment and Management, Stream Biomonitoring Unit, 36 pages.

Bode, Robert W., Margaret A. Novak, Lawrence E. Abele, Diana L. Heitzman, Alexander J. Smith. (2003) Bronx River Biological Assessment, NYS DEC – Division of Water, Bureau of Water Assessment and Management, Stream Biomonitoring Unit, 33 pages

Booth, D. and L. Reinelt. 1993. Consequences of Urbanization on Aquatic Systems, Measured effects, Degradation Thresholds and Corrective Strategies.” pp 545-550 in Proceedings Watershed ’93 A National Conference on Watershed Management. March 21-24, 1993. Alexanderia, Virginia.

Booth, D.B., D. R. Montgomery, and J. Bethel, 1997, Large woody debris in urban streams of the Pacific Northwest: in Roesner, L. A., ed., Effects of watershed development and management on aquatic ecosystems: Engineering Foundation Conference, Proceedings, Snowbird, Utah, August 4-9, 1996 (invited).

Booth, D.B. 1990. Stream-channel incision following drainage-basin urbanization. Water Resources Bulletin, 26(3): 407-417.

Bronx River Alliance and Pratt Center. 2006. Bronx River Greenway Plan.

Bronx Valley Sewer Commission. 1896. The Final Report of the Bronx River Valley Sewer Commission, Westchester County Archives. Available at < muni/wca/brvs.html>

Brown, H., A.C. Steven, K. Carnahan, and S. Nielsen, 2005. High Performance Infrastructure Guidelines. Design Trust for Public Space and New York City Department of Design and Construction.

Galli, J., 1996. Rapid Stream Assessment Technique (RSAT) field methods. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Department of Environmental Programs, Washington DC 36 pp.

Harrelson C. C., Rawlins, C. L. and Potyondy J. P. (1994) Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique, General Technical Report RM-245, USDA - Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, 61 pages.

Haynes, R. J., and L. Moore. 1988. Reestablishment of bottomland hardwoods within national wildlife refuges in the Southeast, in Proceedings of a conference: Increasing our Wetland Resources. National Wildlife Federation—Corporate Conservation Council, Washington, DC. pp 95 – 103.

Interfluve, Inc. 2002. Bronx River Floodplain Forest Restoration. Preliminary Design Report. City of New York Parks & Recreation, Natural Resources Group.

Kaufmann, P.R. and E.G. Robison. 1997. Physical Habitat Assessment. Pages 6-1 to 6-38 in D.J. Klemm and J.M. Lazorchak (editors). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. 1997 Pilot Field Operations Manual for Streams. EPA/620/R-94/004. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Keller, E.A. and F.J. Swanson. 1979. Effects of large organic material on channel form and fluvial processes. Earth Surface Processes. 4:361-380.

Kern, K. 1992. Restoration of lowland rivers: the German experience. In Lowland Floodplain Rivers: Geomorphological Perspectives, ed. PA. Carling and G.E. Petts, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. pp. 279 – 297.

Larson, M., D. Sugar and J. Rachlin 2004. Fish passage needs and feasibility assessment. NYC Parks and Recreation, Natural Resource Group and Lehman College Laboratory of Marine and Estuarine Research.

Lazorchak (editors). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. 1997 Pilot Field Operations Manual for Streams. EPA/620/R-94/004. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Leopold, L.B, M.G.Wolman and J.P.Miller. 1964. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. W.H. Freeman. San Francisco, California. pp. 522

Lisle, Thomas E. 1987. Using “residual depths” to monitor pool depths independently of discharge. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; p 4.

Main, Jeff. Bronx River Outfall Identification Project Interim Report. Westchester County Department of Parks Recreation & Conservation, 2003

Manci, K. M. 1989. Riparian ecosystem creation and restoration: A literature summary. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 89(20):1-59. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. Available at <>

McDonnell, T.C. and M. Larson. 2004. Estimating pollutant loading to the Bronx River. NYC Parks and Recreation Department: Natural Resources Group. New York, NY.

McNamara, John. History in Asphalt: The Origin of Bronx Street and Place Names. Bronx Co. Historical Society, NY, 1984.

Montgomery, D.R. and J.M. Buffington. 1993. Channel classification, predication of channel response, and assessment of channel condition. TFW-SH10-93-002, 84p. Wash. State Dep. of Nat. Resour., Olympia, WA.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), US-East Coast, New York, East River, Tallman Island to Queensboro Bridge: Nautical Chart #12339. Washington DC, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Ocean Service, Coast Survey, 43rd Edition, July 15, 2000.

New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYC DEP). 2004. The Waterbody/Watershed Facility Plan. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC).

2004A. “Final New York State 2004 Section 303(d) List of Impaired Waters Requiring a TMDL, Part 1,” available at: <>. Ref. IDs 1702-0006, 1702-0106, 1702-0107 NYS DEC.

2004B. “ Legend Information for Matrix and Maps,” available at: < website/dow/uwa/mapinfo.htm>.

NYS DEC. 2002. Bronx River Biological Assessment. NYS DEC 2005. Unified Watershed Assessment and Watershed Protection and Restoration Priorities for New York State. Available at <>.

Parrish, J.D., D.P. Braun, and R.S. Unnasch. 2003. Are we conserving what we say we are? Measuring ecological integrity within protected areas. Bioscience 53 :851-860.

Rachlin, J. Lehman College Laboratory of Marine and Estuarine Research. Personal communication, 2005

Rosgen, D. 1996. Applied River Morphology. Wildland Hydrology Books, Pagosa Springs, Colorado, p 6-42.

Sanderson, Eric W. and Danielle LaBruna. 2006. Mapping the historical ecology and reconstruction the historical flora of the lower Bronx River: A guide for ecosystem restoration and outreach. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY p 15.

Schmidt, R.E. and J.M. Samaritan 1984. Fishes of an urban stream; the Bronx River, NY. Northeastern Environmental Science, 3(1):3-7.

Schmidt, R.E., Samaritan, J.M. and Potoczek, J. 1981. Water quality of the Bronx River, New York. In Water Quality Survey of the Bronx River, New York. Report to Bronx River Restoration. 33pp.

Scholz, J.G. and D.B. Booth. 2001. Monitoring urban streams: strategies and protocols for humid-region lowland systems. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 71(2): 143-164.

Seewagen, C.L. 2005. The energetics and stopover ecology of Neotropical migrant passerines in an urban park. M.A. thesis, Columbia University, New York.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) New York District. Expedited Reconnaissance Study Bronx River Basin, Westchester and Bronx Counties, New York, Flood Control and Environmental Restoration Study, Section 905(b) (WRDA 86) Preliminary Analysis, August 1999.

USGS Site Number 01302000, 2005. Available at <>

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